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Okay so with all the Holidays kinda past I was thinking about Religion and diet. Of course there is actually “Holy Anorexic’s” and it
seemed that as long as religion was attached to your fasting it was all okay… So I figured I would go a little deeper into the eating
aspects of religions and the past centuries to today’s ED’s.
Let us start with the sins… which were really called temptations..

The Original Eight (8) Temptations of Man…

Today, we call them the Seven (7) Deadly Sins, but there were originally the Eight (8) Temptations of Man. The original version came
from a monk, Evagrius Ponticus, in the 4th century.  Through meditation and intuition, he listed and defined The Eight Temptations of
Man.  They were also known as "evil thoughts" as all a soul had to do to activate this energy to think of them.  The original temptations
of man were:

•        Gluttony
•        Fornication
•        Avarice
•        Sorrow
•        Anger
•        Discouragement
•        Vainglory
•        Pride  
If you noticed Gluttony is the first… hello Gluttony!!
In the 6th century, Pope Gregory modified the original Temptations of man.  He combined Avarice and Sorrow into Sloth, and renamed
the 8 Temptations of Man to the 7 Deadly Sins.  By making them sins, breaking them became a one way ticket to Hell, which is how
they become deadly.  

Gluttony is over-indulgence of anything to the point of waste.  In today’s world, it is often associated with food, but over-consumption
of anything too much, too soon, too expensive, or too eagerly, are all examples of gluttony.

The spiritual opposite of gluttony is abstinence and moderation.  Abstinence, borderline on greed, from things you don't need in the
first place, and moderation, and balance for those things you do need. Early Church leaders, like Thomas Aquinas, took a more
expansive view of gluttony, arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies
and excessively costly foods. He went so far as to prepare a list of five ways to commit gluttony, including:
1. Praepropere - eating too soon
2. Laute - eating too expensively
3. Nimis - eating too much
4. Ardenter - eating too eagerly
5. Studiose - eating too daintily

It is the first sin the devil tempts Jesus with… God led Jesus into the desert. Jesus stayed in the desert for 40 days and nights,
praying and listening to God. During that time, he did not eat anything because He was
trying to pay close attention to God. This was called fasting. (Be sure to warn the
children not to fast for a long period of time because it can be deadly.)
After 40 days and nights, the devil came to Jesus and tried to tempt Him to do
First the devil said, "If you are God's Son, tell these rocks to turn into bread."
Jesus would not do it. Instead, He answered by using a memory verse, "It is written in the
Scriptures, 'A person does not live by eating only bread. But a person lives by everything
the Lord says.'" This was a quote from Deuteronomy 8:3.

I read this great book called… Rudolph M. Bell's book, Holy Anorexia (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1985), in which he cogently
argues that Catherine of Siena and many other female mystics were anorexic….in the fourteenth century, female self-denial was
logical: asceticism was associated with holiness, one of the few modes of self-exp Shorn of her fourteenth century piety, St.
Catherine talks the language of modern anorexics. Mere penance is not good enough. She must rely on a "holy hatred of herself"--
equivalent to the low self-esteem of today's sufferers--in order to achieve "perfection." A "desire" to please God is accompanied by
"hunger" in which the spiritual overcomes the physical, mirroring the asexuality of late twentieth century self-starvers.
In her book, Self Starvation, From Individual To Family Therapy In The Treatment Of Anorexia Nervosa (New York: Jason Aronson, Inc.
1985), psychologist Mara Selvini-Palazzoli observes that anorexics are not suicidal, but anti-corporeal (Palazzoli, 81). They have no
death wish, but instead want to escape the flesh and its infirmities (ibid.). ression available to women- virtually their only route to
Anorexia Nervosa usually has been considered a relatively recent disorder, being described almost simultaneously by Gull (l873) and
Lesque (l973) in the latter part of the l9th Century. However, a number of scholarly works which have appeared in the last few
decades (Skrabanck, l983, Brumberg, l988, Vandereycken, and Van Deth, l994 Bemporad, l996) present evidence of voluntary self-
starvation dating back many centuries. The frequency of these acts of willful self denial seems to vary greatly in different certain
periods of history, suggesting that certain combinations of social and economic factors may have facilitated or inhibited the
expression of psychopathology through anorexic behavior, just as current anthropological studies have demonstrated marked
differences in the rate of anorexia in disparate cultures (DiNicola l990, Dolan l99l.)
It may be in interest that, in Western culture, instances of self starvation do not appear until the Hellenistic era. There are no reports
of anorexia from classical Greece, although instances of willful over-eating or voracious hunger are not rare (Ziolko, l996.) Many of
these early abstainers were male hermits who renounced the entire material world as part of a general asceticism Various gnostic
sects arose in the wake of the decline of independent city states which were submerged into large empires. The Greek scholar
Dodds (l970) postulates that as citizens lost their sense of public effectiveness in the government of the "polis", they diverted their
desire for control to the private sphere, including their corporal selves. It was at this time that Eastern religions influenced European
through the use of Gnosticism which proclaims, not only a special knowledge of God, but a dichotomy between spirit and body.
(Jonas, l958). The body, as part of the material world, is considered evil while the soul, which is imprisoned in that body, is considered
holy. This depreciation of the body was not confined to male recluses, but seems to have been adopted by wealthy Roman ladies. For
example, St. Jerome became the spiritual leader of a group of high born Roman women, one of whom actually starved herself to
death in 383 A.D., thereby becoming the first recorded death from anorexia and also forcing St. Jerome to flee for his life to
Bethlehem (Ranke-Heinemann, l900.)
With the fall of the Roman Empire, there also appears to be a decline of self imposed fasting. During the ensuing "Dark Ages",
everyday life reverted to its most basic biologic level with a premium placed on female physical stamina and procreative capability, as
the population had to deal with recurrent famines, plagues, and attack by marauding armies (Brown l988.) Cities disappeared and
with them the previous emphasis on culture and sophistication which had been guiding forces for the urban wealthy classes. Only
three cases of anorexia have been reported during these centuries of privation: two were of young women who were thought to be
possessed by Satan and cured by exorcism (Skrabanek, l990) while the third involved a princess who fasted when her father
promised her in marriage to a Saracen king of Sicily (Lacey, l982). This devout girl, who wished to serve only Christ, managed to make
herself sufficiently unattractive so that her suitor called off the wedding. As punishment, her father had her crucified, a martyrdom
which resulted in her being canonized as a Saint (Lacey, l982.)
In contrast to the relative rarity of self starvation during the "Dark Ages", anorexic behavior seemed to have reached almost epidemic
proportions during the Renaissance, particularly in Southern Europe where urban centers, and their concomitant sophistication and
wealth flourished. (Bell l985, Bynum l987.) In his book, Holy Anorexia, Bell (l985) cites 26l cases of female starvation for religious
reasons between 1206 and l934. Of these 26l fasting women, l8l (more than two-thirds) lived between l200 and l600 A.D. with many
being elevated to sainthood. In addition to fasting (often to death) these "holy" anorexics castigated their bodies, refused offers of
marriage and sought refuge in religious orders. Many were sanctified for their alleged ability to communicate with Christ (such as St.
Catherine of Siena) and praised for their devotion to helping the sick and the poor at the expense of their own health and appearance.
Their existence contrasted with the more typical Renaissance feminine ideal of an ethereal yet carefully clothed and made up
fashionable lady who was educated to serve at her husband's side. Some forms of holy anorexia continued beyond the Renaissance
(Simone Weil might serve as a contemporary example, Coles, l987, McLellan, l990) but once again this form of behavior diminished
greatly as the more mundane world of the Reformation reshaped European values. One possible explanation for this relative
disappearance of holy anorexics may be in an alteration of the attitude of the Church. In the attempt to reestablish it's authority, the
Church mandated that the laity could only communicate with Christ via the intermediary of an ordained male priest, so that a young
girl claiming to speak with Christ could expect a visit from the Inquisition as much as an invitation to sainthood. However, the
centuries following the Renaissance also brought about an alteration in the social perception of the female's role in society. Women
were once again prized for their biological rather that aesthetic qualities as the high civilization of Southern Europe was eclipsed by a
pervasive puritanism.
In these simpler times, a few cases of self starvation have been reported as "miraculous maids" (Brumberg, l982) who claimed to be
able to exist without nourishment. These girls have a "Cinderella" quality: they usually come from poor families in rural areas who
became celebrities once news of their ethereal existence spread and who were visited by dignitaries, often for a fee paid to the
family. Some of these girls were found to be frauds while others died of malnutrition. Many claimed a religious basis to their fasting
so that they became the objects of debate between the church which espoused the possibility of a solely "spiritual" existence and
the rising scientific materialism which doubted the ability to live without nourishment. A few of these "miraculous maids" gained
international fame and some may have starved to death in obscurity.
This trickle of cases of anorexia swelled to a respectable stream of self starvation in the l9th century, leading to their description by
Leseque and Gull in l873 (although Silverman (l989) has found a published clinical account of anorexia nervosa by Louis Victor Marce,
a French physician, dating to l859.) At this time, the industrial revolution produced a return of a moneyed and urbane middle class with
cultural and aesthetic aspirations. As Veblen (l899) noted in his Theory of the Leisure Class, a corpulent woman no longer was
evidence of her family's prosperity. Since women were now joining the labor force, a frail, thin woman proved that she did not need to
work because of her father's or husband's financial success.
The history of anorexia from Victorian days to our own era is well known and need not be repeated here in detail. Numbers of cases
declined during the World Wars and the depression, only to reemerge with alarming frequency in the late sixties. Russell (l985)
reviewed the changes in eating disorders since the turn of the century, noting an overall increase in incidence in the last few
decades, the emergence of bulimia as a frequent manifestation, and possibly, a different motivation: fear of becoming fat rather than
defending against sexuality or the demands of an adult life.
Finally, only when women are regarded for their aesthetics, cultural or spiritual attributes are cases reported. Affluence alone, as in
contemporary Arabic countries, does not result in increased incidence of self starvation if women are prized mainly for their
biological functions. It may be that the confluence of wealth plus a degree of culture which rewarded more aesthetic aspects of
femininity (at the expense of biological functions) against a Judeo-Christian background of mind-body dichotomy that may create a
conflict to the social role for women resulting in the development of eating disorders.

Today more than half of adult women in America (55%) have a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 and are considered overweight…
Gluttons…  So is everyone forgetting the sins?? We are hot wired to the temptation of gluttony!!
We have the  hunter gatherer’s GENE…..A hunter gatherer is a human who procures food from hunting and gathering - in contrast to
procuring food by mass agriculture and/or the domestication of animals. Hunting and gathering cultures reigned supreme before the
advent of agriculture - so for the largest portion of human prehistory.
The term, "hunter gatherer", while a commonly used term in academic, archaeological, anthropolical, and popular publications, has
many spelling variations - all referring to and meaning the same thing. Some of these spelling/grammatical variations are: hunters
and gatherers, hunters-and-gatherers, hunters-gatherers, hunter-gatherer, H-G's, H-G, hunting and gathering, etc. Why we are not
hunters and gatherer’s anymore…
We could more easily store food for winter, and for nomads and travelers to carry supplies. Food storage also enabled surpluses to
be stored, and this in turn made it possible to free some people from food gathering to become specialists in other activities, such as
builders, warriors and rulers. This in turn set us on the course to modern day civilization. Despite these advantages, our genes were
never developed with grains, beans and potatoes and were not in tune with them, and still are not. Man soon improved further on
these advances- by farming plants and animals.
Instead of being able to eat only a fraction of the animal and plant life in an area, farming allows us to fill a particular area with a large
number of edible plants and animals. This in turn increases the number of calories that we can obtain from an area by some 10 to 100
fold or more…..Then followed by the harnessing of dairy products, which allow man to obtain far more calories from the animal over
its lifetime than if it were simply slaughtered for its meat. Dairy products are interesting as they combine a variety of components-
some of which our genes were ready for and some not. Whist cows milk is ideal for calves, there are several very important
differences between it and human milk. For example, the brain of a calf is only a tiny fraction of its body weight whereas humans have
very big brains. Not surprisingly, cows milk is low in critical nutrients for brain development, particularly omeg 3 fats.
Paleolithic Diet buffs refer to the new foods as Neolithic foods and the old as Paleolithic Diet foods. In simple terms we see Neolithic
as bad and Paleolithic as good. Since then, some other substances have entered the diet- particularly salt and sugar, and more
recently a litany of chemicals including firstly caffeine then all other additives, colourings, preservatives, pesticides etc.
Grains, Beans and Potatoes (GBP) share the following important characteristics:
• They are all toxic when raw- there is no doubt about this- it is a fact that no competent source would dispute- they can be extremely
dangerous and it is important never to eat them raw or undercooked. These toxins include enzyme blockers, lectins and other types. I
will talk about them in detail later as they are very important.
• Cooking destroys most but not all of the toxins. Insufficient cooking can lead to sickness such as acute gastroenteritis.
• They are all rich sources of carbohydrate, and once cooked this is often rapidly digestible-giving a high glycemic index (sugar spike).
• They are extremely poor sources of vitamins (particularly vitamins A, B-group, folic acid and C), minerals, antioxidants and
Therefore diets high in grains beans and potatoes (GBP):
• Contain toxins in small amounts
• Have a high glycemic index (ie have a similar effect to raw sugar on blood glucose levels)
• Are low in many vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytosterols- ie they are the original "empty calories"
• Have problems caused by the GBP displacing other foods
As grains, beans and potatoes form such a large proportion of the modern diet, you can now understand why it is so common for
people to feel they need supplements or that they need to detoxify (ie that they have toxins in their system)- indeed both feelings are
absolutely correct. Unfortunately, we don’t necessarily realize which supplements we need, and ironically when people go on
detoxification diets they unfortunately often consume even more Neolithic foods (eg soy beans) and therefore more toxins than usual
(perhaps they sometimes benefit from a change in toxins). More detail on these issues follows in subsequent pages.
The essentials of the Paleolithic Diet are:
Eat none of the following:
• Grains- including bread, pasta, noodles
• Beans- including string beans, kidney beans, lentils, peanuts, snow-peas and peas
• Potatoes
• Dairy products
• Sugar
• Salt
Eat the following:
• Meat, chicken and fish
• Eggs
• Fruit
• Vegetables (especially root vegetables, but definitely not including potatoes or sweet potatoes)
• Nuts, eg. walnuts, brazil nuts, macadamia, almond. Do not eat peanuts (a bean) or cashews (a family of their own)
• Berries- strawberries, blueberries, raspberries etc.
Try to increase your intake of:
• Root vegetables- carrots, turnips, parsnips, rutabagas, Swedes
• Organ meats- liver and kidneys (I accept that many people find these unpalatable and won’t eat them)
Expect some minor tuning problems- don’t worry, you can deal with them:
• It will take some time for your body to adjust to the changes after all these years. There is a huge surge in your vitamin intake. There
is a huge decrease in your toxin intake.
• Start with breakfast for few days, as this is the easiest place to start as most people eat it at home, and it tends to be the least
Paleolithic meal of the standard 3. For weight loss you will eventually need to reduce your carbohydrate intake, but ignore this initially
as most people have high carb intakes and this can continue for the first few days that you are on this diet. If you reduce too quickly
then you may fell unwell. Then move on to lunch or dinner for a few days and then to all 3 meals. If you work, you will often find it
easier to take your lunch to work.
12,000 years ago the ice planet Earth thawed out as the last Ice Age came to an end. The great glaciers melted, carving enormous
plains across the continents and the planet became green again. The seas rose some 400 feet (120 metres) (incidentally
unfortunately drowning most of our archeological heritage). The plains flourished and savannah, prairie and forest sprang up. Grazing
animals spread onto the plains, followed by hunting animals and amongst these last were the greatest hunters of all- humans.
Humans, being omnivores, have the ability to eat both plant and animal foods. That is a major advantage as the number of creatures
that can live in a particular habitat depends entirely on how much energy they can obtain. To make a crude example- imagine you are
breeding monkeys on 100 acres of land and the only edible plant there is bananas. If you double the number of banana plants, then
you can double the number of monkeys on the land.
You might instead introduce apple trees and have the same effect. The number of monkeys would depend entirely on how many
calories they could obtain from the environment. The carrying capacity of the habitat for a species depends on how many calories the
species can obtain. Humans are no different. They have a major advantage in being able to eat both plant and animals foods thereby
harvesting enormous amounts of calories from the environment. Humans learnt to cook grains, beans and potatoes and increased
further the number of plant food calories they can obtain from the environment- probably doubling it in most habitats, and even more
on grasslands.
The reason why grains, beans and potatoes store so well is simply because of the toxins that they contain. The enzyme blockers put
them into a deep freeze, stopping them from sprouting. The lectins and other toxins are natural pesticides and can attack bacteria,
insects, worms, rodents and other pests (and humans too of course).
You probably already know a lot about nutrients- macronutrients (fats, protein and carbohydrates and micronutrients (vitamins,
minerals, antioxidants, phytosterols etc). Now it's time to meet the rest of the family....... We all know that foods contain a variety of
nutrients. There is less awareness that many foods contain small amounts of potentially harmful substances. These are toxins, as
they have toxic effects. They are normally called "antinutrients" by the scientific community as toxins sounds too alarmist.
Antinutrients are very real and for over 100 years research has been done on them- but it is generally only appreciated by a small
group of specialized scientists. Antinutrients have an incredible range of biological effects. As you have probably already guessed,
the vast majority and highest levels of antinutrients are in Neolithic foods like grains, beans and potatoes. The Paleolithic diet has
incredibly low levels of antinutrients compared to the usual modern diet. I believe that this is the number one advantage of the diet.
Textbooks on antinutrients read like books on what not to eat- Neolithic foods are the most prominent. Professor Irvin Liener
published one of the most famous of these books in 1980. In the first chapter he points out that when we started cooking inedible
plants, new toxins entered the diet for the first time. Ironically, he wasn’t trying to promote Paleolithic diets- his aim was to help
agricultural scientists more safely feed the world on grains, beans and potatoes.
It’s a technical subject, and I’ll do my best to make it clear to you.
Consider our friend, the apple. When an animal eats an apple, it profits by getting a meal. It swallows the seeds and then deposits
them in a pile of dung. With some luck a new apple tree might grow, and so the apple tree has also profited from the arrangement. In
nature as in finance, it is good business when both parties make profit happily. Consider what would happen if the animal were
greedy and decided to eat the few extra calories contained within the apple seeds- then there would be no new apple tree to continue
on the good work. So, to stop this from happening, the apple seeds contain toxins that have multiple effects:
* firstly, they taste bad- discouraging the animal from chewing them
* secondly some toxins are enzyme blockers that bind up predators digestive enzymes- these also act as "preservatives" freezing
the apple seed enzymes until sprouting- Upon sprouting of the seed, many of these enzyme blockers disappear.
* thirdly, they contain lectins- these are toxic proteins which have numerous effects. They act as natural pesticides and are also toxic
to a range of other species including bacteria, insects, worms, rodents and other predators including humans .
Of course, the apple has other defenses- to start with it is high above the ground well out of reach of casual predators, and it also has
the skin and flesh of the apple to be penetrated first. Above all though is the need to stop the seed from being eaten, so that new apple
trees may grow.
Now, please consider the humble grain. Once again as a seed its duty is mission critical- it must perpetuate the life cycle of the plant.
It is however much closer to the ground, on the tip of a grass stalk. It is within easy reach of any predator strolling by. It contains a
good source of energy, like a booster rocket for the new plant as it grows. The grain is full of energy and in a vulnerable position. It
was "expensive" for the plant to produce. It is an attractive meal. Its shell offers little protection. Therefore, it has been loaded with
toxic proteins to discourage predators- grains are full of enzyme blockers and lectins. You may be surprised to learn that uncooked
flour is very toxic- please don't try eating it as you become very sick. And yes, I don't recommend al dente pasta (if one must eat pasta
at all).
Beans too are full of enzyme blockers and lectins. Potatoes contain enzyme blockers, lectins and another family of toxins called
glycoalkaloids. Glycoalkaloids (GA) unlike lectins and enzyme blockers aren't destroyed by cooking, even deep-frying. GA are
particularly high in green or injured potatoes, which must never be eaten even if trimmed heavily and well-cooked. Many people have
told me that they eat small amounts of raw potato- this is a dangerous habit and it should be discouraged very strongly.
These toxins in foods are commonly referred to as antinutrients. Let's learn some more about them:
Enzyme Blockers: These enzyme blockers are abundant in all seeds including grains and beans, and also in potatoes, serving to hold
them in suspended animation and also acting as pesticides. Most commonly they block the enzymes that digest protein (proteases),
and are called "protease inhibitors". They can affect the stomach protease enzyme "pepsin", and the small intestine protease
enzymes "trypsin" and "chymotrypsin". These small intestine enzymes are made by the pancreas (it does a lot of other important
things besides making insulin). Some enzyme blockers affect the enzymes that digest starch (amylase) and are called "amylase
When GBP are cooked, most of the enzyme blockers are destroyed, but some are not. In human volunteers and in animal
experiments high levels of protease inhibitors lead to increased secretion of digestive enzymes by the pancreas. This is because the
body can sense that the enzymes have been knocked out and orders to pancreas to make more. Even if the effect of GBP based
foods is only a small increase in pancreatic enzyme secretion, over many years it all adds up to a lot of extra work.
They are effective poisons- rats cannot gain weight if they have substantial amounts of enzyme blockers in the diet. As far as their
preservative action is concerned, I need only to remind you that the potted grains in the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs were still
viable and sprouted after thousands of years locked away.
Grain eating birds have evolved digestive enzymes that are resistant to grain protease inhibitors. Lectins (Haemagglutins)................
Meet Hannibal
Lectins are natural proteins that have a large variety of roles. They are amongst the most fascinating and stimulating of all biological
compounds, and I have no doubt that they play a major role in many "unexplained " diseases. I think of them as "Hannibal Lectins" as
they remind of the devious criminal mastermind in the shock horror movie "Silence of the Lambs.' Lectins are like master code-
breakers. The cells of our bodies are studded with receptors which are like code pads to ensure stimulation only under the correct
circumstances. Lectins have the ability to crack these codes and stimulate the receptors causing a variety of responses- covering
basically the full repertoire of the cell and even tricking the cell into doing things it normally cannot do.
They also have a knack for bypassing our defenses and "getting behind the lines", and then they can travel all over the body causing
harm. They can, for example:
--strip protective mucus off tissues,
--damage the cells lining the small intestine- disrupting the microscopic fingers called villi and microvilli,
--get swallowed whole by the small intestine cells ("pinocytosis")
--bind to cells including blood cells causing a clot to form (hence they were initially called "haemagglutins")
--make a cell act as if it has been stimulated by a hormone-
--stimulate a cell to secrete a hormone
--promote cell division at the wrong time
--cause gowth or shrinkage of lymphatic tissue ("outposts" of white blood cells)
--cause enlargement of the pancreas
--cause cells to present codes (HLA's) that they normally should not use
--cause cell death (apoptosis)
Lectins break down the surface of the small intestine, stripping it of mucus and causing the cells to become irregular and leaky.
Some lectins make cells act as if they have been stimulated by insulin. Others cause the pancreas to release insulin. Others cause
immune cells to divide in the wrong way, causing growth of some white blood cells and breaking down the control of the immune
system. Others cause cells to present the wrong codes (HLA's) on their surface, tricking the immune system into thinking that
intruders have been found and activating the immune system inappropriately- thus leading to "autoimmune disease" where the
body's tissues are attacked by its own immune system.
Autoimmune diseases are incredibly common and increase every year that a person gets older. A disordered immune system also
has a much harder job recognizing and attacking the real intruders- invading germs and cancer cells (you may have heard that
scientists think that most people generate many cancer cells in a life time but that the immune system cleans most of them up).
It is not known whether lectins can cause cancer- this is one of the most important questions in medicine today. They certainly affect
colon cells in the test tube. I feel that they are likely candidates as they can stimulate abnormal cell growth and they also cause
disorder in the immune system.
Lectins have many other roles besides defending seeds. For example in beans, lectins act like a glue to enable nitrogen-fixing
bacteria to bind to the roots of the plant. Many important lectin families are found in animal tissues, but as we are carnivores, we have
evolved to be able to deal with these- just as birds that live on grains have evolved to be resistant to grain lectins.
It is ironic that the lectins were discovered more than 100 years ago and yet so many questions remain unanswered- the same was
true of the immune system until the 1980’s. I hope that there is more research done into lectins as they hold a whole world of disease
mechanisms of which most of the medical community is blissfully unaware.
Exorphins are food chemicals that have morphine-like activity. They are found in dairy products and wheat. Our body has its own
natural morphine like substances that are called endorphins. Endorphins work by stimulating a type of nerve cell surface receptor
called endorphin receptors. Endorphins are very important in controlling pain and addictive behaviour.
Exorphins also act on endorphin receptors and may stimulate them or block them. It is logical that exorphins may therefore affect
chronic pain and also affect addictive behaviour.

Arguments exist regarding the specifics of hunter-gatherer cuisine, partly because diets varied widely depending on the region and
partly because hunter-gatherers existed over a period of thousands of years, during which different foods were likely available and
utilized. But scientists generally agree that our Paleolithic hunter-gatherer ancestors likely ate a combination of foods that could be
hunted or fished, including lean meats and seafood, and some that could be gathered, such as fruits, plants, nuts, eggs, insects,
mushrooms, herbs, and spices.
In comparison, estimates indicate that up to 70% of Western dietary calories could come from foods that weren’t available to those
living in the Paleolithic Era (think refined cereals, sugars, and vegetable oils). And although our world may be evolving at a digital
speed, according to some scientists, many of our genes are still stuck at the hunter-gatherer dinner table.
Paleo Diet
I have tried many diets but have found that the SIMPLEST low carb diet to follow is the Paleo.
here's my menu:

Breakfast- small sushi salmon steak
Snack- 1/2 banana
Lunch- tossed salad with white fish
Snack- 1/2 banana, 1/8 c. chopped walnuts
Dinner- assorted raw sushi, tossed salad
Dessert- 1/2 c. blueberries sprinkled with sliced almonds
A Modern Diet for Ancient Genes?
Some in the scientific world say humans are not genetically adapted to eat a sizeable percentage of the average modern diet—foods
that first came into existence in the Neolithic Revolution with the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry about 10,000 years
ago, and even more so with the industrialization of the food system in the Industrial Age.
As the advent of agriculture slowly shifted once–hunter-gatherers from nomadic tribes into larger societies to tend crops, everyday
diets also shifted, allowing for the consumption of large amounts of grain, milk, and domesticated meat. Then came the Industrial Age
(a mere 200 years ago), when whole grains and sugar were refined. This reliance on more processed foods than fresh foods
effectively led us to where we stand today—likely within 5 miles of multiple fast-food joints.
Some scientists argue that our genes simply haven’t caught up with this dietary divergence and that it could be causing—or at least
contributing to—the epidemic levels of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, that we see
“Although evolution is an ongoing process, for all living people, their genome is a result of past events in the generations of humans
who came before them,” says Loren Cordain, PhD, a professor and the author of The Paleo Diet. “Only 330 human generations have
come and gone since the development of agriculture. Before this time, all humans on the planet made their living as hunter-gatherers.
Although a number of genetic changes have occurred since the agricultural revolution, the majority of the human genome has
resulted from the environment of our hunter-gatherer ancestors and earlier.”
Thus, Cordain says, modern humans, like all species, are genetically adapted to the environment that their ancestors survived in and
that conditioned their genetic makeup. And according to George Armelagos, PhD, a professor and the department chair of
anthropology at Emory University, the genotype of hunter-gatherer populations was adapted for times of feast or famine, which can
be seen in the way fat accrued on the body. Today, that genotype could be causing problems due to the excessive amounts of
carbohydrates some people eat.
“That genotype, once you have abundant carbohydrates, becomes a health problem with diabetes,” says Armelagos. “We have a
genotype that was developed for the grasslands and the forest, and now we live in the canyons of cities. With the 10,000 years since
the development of agriculture, there just hasn’t been enough time to alter the genetic structure of the human population. … From a
dietary perspective, it’s not likely that there’s been very many major [genetic] changes. I think with the development of agriculture, the
basic way in which we consume proteins and carbohydrates hasn’t changed.”
One may expect our preagriculture ancestors to have a less balanced diet than that of today, when grocery stores house endless
options of countless foods, but Armelagos says that isn’t so. “During the Paleolithic period, there was a much broader pattern of food
consumption. Even though they may have had aspects of famine, they had a wider range of foods and so they had a more balanced
diet,” albeit accidentally, he explains. “With the impact of agriculture, you tend to have a selection of superfoods. For example, in
Native Americans, it may be maize, which is lysine deficient, and that creates [nutritional] problems.”
This reliance on superfoods caused not only an increase in infectious diseases in agricultural societies but also a decline in
nutritional health, he says, which was only exacerbated by an Industrial Age that brought an abundance of high-density foods to
According to Armelagos, 2 million years ago, our hominid ancestors experienced a decrease in the length of the large intestine and
an increase in the length of the small intestine, which forced the early hominids to rely on high-density foods. “That’s no problem
during the Paleolithic period and probably not even in the Neolithic period,” he says, because there was never an abundance of high-
density foods available. But with the industrialization of the food system, which happened only a few hundred years ago, “came the
abundance of high-density foods, which can create problems for humans in terms of overconsumption,” he notes.
In Cordain’s view, the evolution of our diet may provide answers to the emergence of modern disease, as many chronic diseases
manifested only after the advent of agriculture. “Humanity is genetically well adapted to the lifestyle of a hunter-gatherer, including
the food types that they consumed and their exercise patterns. As the famous scientist Theodosius Dobzhansky once said, ‘Nothing
in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.’ As nutrition is a subdiscipline of biology, it could be said that nothing in
nutrition makes sense except in the light of evolution. No matter how absurd it may sound at first glance, the direction and clues that
evolutionary evidence provides for optimal human nutrition is invariably correct,” he says.
Cordain uses dairy as an example. “No hunter-gatherer ever consumed milk after weaning and rarely, if ever, consumed cereal
grains. These two foods comprise approximately 35% of the energy in the typical U.S. diet. By keeping an open mind to the biological
laws that govern all living processes, including nutrition, nutritionists who utilize this powerful tool will uncover new information
linking diet to disease,” he says. “Currently, hundreds of diseases with no known cause inflict humanity, particularly autoimmune
diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and others. An increasing body of evidence is
now implicating diet as the environmental trigger that elicits these diseases in genetically susceptible individuals, and the dietary
factors in all of these diseases are foods and food groups introduced after the advent of agriculture.”
Paleolithic Dietary Details
Before agriculture’s onset, scientists generally believe that hunter-gatherers derived their foods mostly from minimally processed
plants and animals. As Armelagos and Harper wrote in “Genomics at the Origins of Agriculture, Part One” in Evolutionary
Anthropology, “For thousands of millennia, hominids existed as foragers who, it has been suggested, struggled to eke out an
existence by gathering and hunting in marginal environments.”
But with agriculture and animal husbandry, as well as food industrialization, the food supply broadened substantially, allowing for the
introduction of many new foods and altering the nutritional characteristics of the average diet. According to a 2005 article in The
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Cordain et al argue, “The novel foods (dairy products, cereals, refined cereals, refined sugars,
refined vegetable oils, fatty meats, salt, and combinations of these foods) introduced as staples during the Neolithic and Industrial
Eras fundamentally altered several key nutritional characteristics of ancestral hominin diets and ultimately had far-reaching effects
on health and well-being.”
Compared with the typical Western diet of today, Cordain says hunter-gatherer diets from the late Paleolithic Era likely exhibited the
following nutritional characteristics:
• a lower glycemic load;
• a net base yielding to the kidney;
• higher potassium and lower sodium levels;
• higher fiber levels;
• different fatty acid intake (higher omega-3s, lower omega-6s, more highly unsaturated fatty acids of both omega-3s and omega-6s,
lower trans fatty acids, higher monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids);
• more protein and less carbohydrate; and
• more vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
Because Cordain believes these altered nutritional characteristics are interfering with contemporary humans’ mostly ancient genes,
diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, he created the Paleo Diet, which he says is a way of eating in the modern age
to best mimic the nutrition of our evolutionary and genetic heritage.
Although modern lifestyles don’t allow for the utilization of primarily wild plants and animals as a sole nutrition source, Cordain says
modern humans could still use the general characteristics of the hunter-gatherer diet to maximize health benefits. “Clearly, we
cannot eat wild plant and animal foods as our sole nutritional source, but by mimicking the nutritional characteristics of these foods
with common foods available at the supermarket, we can markedly improve our health,” he says.
Cordain’s recommendations mirror what many nutrition professionals have been preaching for years: “The basics of the concept are
quite simple: Eat fresh fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and seafood. Avoid processed and packaged foods.”
An Argument Against Evolutionary Simplicity
Although certain professionals, such as Walter L. Voegtlin, MD, who first popularized the idea of modeling the modern diet after our
Paleolithic ancestors in The Stone Age Diet, and S. Boyd Eaton, MD, Marjorie Shostak, and Melvin Konner, MD, PhD, in The Paleolithic
Prescription, pioneered the concept more than a decade ago, not everyone agrees that benefits exist in examining the dietary habits
of hunter-gatherers.
Some counterarguments include the suggestion that modern disease didn’t affect hunter-gatherer populations simply because their
short life expectancy didn’t allow for it. Other critics ask why modern human populations live so much longer if the diet of our
ancestors was so much healthier, while some dispute the idea that roughly 10,000 years was insufficient time for our genome to
adapt to an evolving environment.
Still others, like Marlene Zuk, PhD, a biology professor at the University of California, Riverside, don’t discount the idea overall but take
issue with its oversimplification, with the notion that “eating like a caveman” will solve all of our modern medical problems. Zuk, who
recently wrote an article in The New York Times, “The Evolutionary Search for Our Perfect Past,” says the danger in seeking modern
dietary answers in our Paleolithic ancestors is that evolution just isn’t that simple or straightforward.
Noting that the Paleolithic Diet, also referred to as the Caveman Diet, appeals to our sense that life used to be more in sync with our
environment, Zuk explains that not all aspects of the human body work perfectly because we technically evolved from fish (and,
before that, single-celled organisms), not from scratch. There are a lot of compromises in human evolution, she says, noting hiccups,
hernias, and hemorrhoids as examples. “But the reason for that isn’t because evolution messed up; it’s because evolution had to
start from a constrained point. And I think that’s an interesting thing to think about in respect to diet, too—that our digestive systems
and our teeth had to come from somewhere. They weren’t just invented de novo for people,” she says.
Zuk says it’s often easy to misunderstand the concept of evolution because it’s a complicated process for which not even scientists
have found all of the answers. “Different genes change at different rates,” she says. “We share a lot of genes with carnations and
sea anemones and lots of other animals; there’s many genes that we have in common with Drosophila [fruit flies]. But nobody’s
suggesting we should eat what flies eat, even though we have genes in common with flies.
“You can suggest that there are a lot of similarities in all animals, and so we’re likely to have more genes in common with our more
recent ancestors than with our more distant ancestors. But that doesn’t mean that for any given gene, they’ve all changed or they all
haven’t changed,” she continues.
Zuk gives humans’ ability to digest milk as an example of a gene that has changed remarkably fast in evolutionary terms. “And yet
people will persist in saying that our hunter-gatherer ancestors didn’t drink milk past weaning, but our agricultural ancestors did. And
the reason they did is that their genes had changed; there has been evolution since we were hunter-gatherers,” she says, noting that
there certainly hasn’t been evolution in every single one of our genes.
Although she laments that many consumers may look to the Paleolithic Diet as a cure-all or an easy fix for bad eating habits, she
does see benefit in examining the general rules about how hunter-gatherers ate and what relevance that has to what we’re doing
Zuk cites a study of aboriginal Australians that looked for a possible link between an indigenous diet and modern diseases such as
diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. “People followed the aboriginal diet—eating a very high fiber content, walking throughout much
of the day, digging up wild tubers—and there was a precipitous drop in blood pressure and blood sugar levels,” she says. “So you can
demonstrate that eating closer to the way a lot of indigenous ancestors of modern people ate is going to have good effects on the
descendants of those people. But that doesn’t mean that everybody needs to be eating yams, for instance. It’s possible that if they ate
the ancestral diet of people from southeast Asia or the ancestral diet of the people from South America that they would be doing
better as well.
“The only reason we think that people in our ancestral hunter-gatherer societies had these wonderful diets to which they were
perfectly adapted to is that they’re not around to talk to us about how it wasn’t,” she continues. “You can see that evolution has
affected a lot of aspects of our physiology and the way we do everything. You just don’t want to have an oversimplified idea that you’re
The Bigger Picture
Armelagos believes that the takeaway message in examining Paleolithic nutrition may not lie in simply reverting clients back to an
ancient way of eating but in helping us determine how we got to this place in history—and how best to move forth. “When we look at
the evolutionary history, I don’t think what it’s calling us to do is to eat like the caveman. What it’s telling us is how these problems
originated. Part of what I’m seeing in the research I’ve done is to let us understand how we got into our current dilemma. Then we
might have other ways of dealing with those particular issues,” he says.
Citing a 1992 study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association in which Murphy et al found that only 22% of
participants were following two thirds of the recommended daily allowances and that only 14% were consuming less than 30% of
dietary fat, with only 2% following both of these, he asks the question, “If Homo sapiens are the self-proclaimed wise ones, then why
don’t we eat right?”
Whereas Murphy believed the answer to be in better educating the public about nutrition, Armelagos says it could be in better
understanding our evolutionary history. “But it’s a difficult task when you have all these systems that can deliver so much food to so
many people at such a low cost,” he says.
“If you look at it from an evolutionary perspective, you have first the evolutionary change in which you have a demand for high-density
foods, which created the major selective force for a couple million years in humans; and then you have the impact of agriculture,
which increased the nutritional diseases and infectious diseases. Then about 200 years ago, you have the development of the
industrialization of the food system, which further exacerbates the nutritional dilemma that humans face,” he explains.
While agreeing that we could learn much from the generalities of what our hunter-gatherer ancestors ate, Armelagos concludes with
where he believes the biggest gain from our hunter-gatherer friends could hide: exercise. “For the time it took the !Kung [hunter-
gatherer] woman to go out and collect food, it takes me about 20 minutes to go to the grocery store to get that food and 20 minutes to
cook it, [equating to] 40 minutes. It took her two or three hours of going out and collecting. Now the difference is that I have to work to
earn the money to pay for that food, but I’m earning that sitting down thinking and writing. If there was anything that The Paleolithic
Prescription would tell us, it’s that we need more exercise.”
Basic Paleo Recipe Principles
When you make Stone Age recipes with modern foods, remember you want to insure that all of the ingredients are free of (1) grains,
(2) legumes including peanuts, beans, peas, soybeans, tofu, soy milk and flour, (3) dairy products, (4) salt, (5) yeast including baked
goods, pickled foods, vinegar, fermented foods and fermented beverages (all contain yeast), (6) processed sugars, (7) starchy root
vegetables including potatoes, yams, and sweet potatoes, and (8) excessive added fats except for permitted oils. You should try to
choose the leanest cuts of domestic meats and trim away any visible fat. Remember, the mainstays of The Paleo Diet are fresh fruits,
vegetables, lean meats, and seafood.
Stone Age Food Substitutions
Salt: Powdered garlic, powdered onion, lemon juice, lime juice, lemon crystals, lemon pepper free of salt, cayenne pepper, chili
powder, commercially available salt-free spice mixes, black pepper, cumin, turmeric, ground cloves, oregano, ground allspice, celery
seeds, coriander seeds, ground cardamom seeds, or any spice or combination of spices can be used to replace salt. I do not
recommend using any of the so-called "lite" salts or potassium chloride salts because chloride, like sodium, is undesirable when it
comes to your health.
Vinegar: Substitute small amounts of vinegar with lemon or lime juice (fresh or reconstituted from fresh).
Butter/Fat: Replace butter, margarine, shortening, lard etc. with olive oil, flaxseed oil, walnut oil, canola oil, or avocado oil. Olive oil has
a wonderful flavor and is high in the health promoting monounsaturated fats but generally has a poor omega-6 to omega-3 fat ratio
(~13). The same situation exists for avocado oil, and these two oils should be frequently complemented by or blended together with
other oils containing better (lower) omega-6 to omega-3 ratios such as flaxseed (0.24), canola (2.0) or walnut (5.1) oils.
Sugars: Concentrated sugars of any kind even natural sugars (honey, maple sugar, date sugar), really were not a staple component in
most pre-agricultural diets. Sugars should be obtained primarily from fruits and vegetables and not from concentrated sources. That
being said, fruit purees, flavored with lemon juice and spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, mint leaves, ginger, vanilla, and other spices), can
be used in recipes to add sweetness to sauces, condiments, and desserts.
Alcohol: Alcoholic beverages were clearly not a component of true Stone Age diets, and should be limited to an occasional glass of
wine, beer or spirits as a part of your "open meals." Wine, as long as it does not contain salt (as most cooking wines do), can be used
to marinate meats and add flavor to many cooked dishes. When wine is used in this context, the amount of added alcohol and sugar
is negligible – furthermore, wine contains a number of health promoting phytochemicals and antioxidants.
Cereals: Nut flours (almond, pecan, walnut, hazelnut, etc.) can be made in food processors or can be purchased at some health food
or specialty stores and can be used to thicken sauces or to add flavor to condiments. Again, these products need to be used
sparingly, as they have the potential to unbalance diet and disrupt health when they are used excessively or in combination with oils,
honey, dried fruit or fruit purees.  

Vitamin C And Human Evolution
Although dietary vitamin and mineral levels in the past were 1.5 to 5 times higher than today, Eaton does not favor "megadoses" of
vitamins. However, there is evolutionary evidence that large doses of vitamin C may be needed for optimal health. The reason has
less to do with diet and more to do with an evolutionary accident.
Evolution often zigzags rather than follows a linear flow. One species might wipe out another by eating it. Climatic and, more recently,
industrial changes, also destroy species. According to the theory of "punctuated equilibrium," proposed by Niles Eldredge, Ph.D., and
Stephen Jay Gould, Ph.D., of Harvard University, catastrophic events - such as an asteroid striking the Earth - can dramatically shift
the course of evolution.14
One such catastrophic event of an unknown nature affected the pre-primate ancestors of humans sometime between 25 and 70
million years ago, according to biochemist Irwin Stone, Ph.D. This particular event led to a mutation that prevented our all of this
species' descendants from manufacturing own vitamin C. At least some of the species survived and evolved into H. sapiens because
they lived in a lush equatorial region with vitamin C-rich foods. But nearly all other species of animals, from insects to mammals,
continued to produce their own vitamin C.
This theory regarding how our evolutionary ancestors lost their ability to produce vitamin C is generally accepted by scientists,
Stone's other theory is more controversial. He contended that people never lost the need for large amounts of vitamin C, even though
they lost the ability to make it. Based on animal data, he estimated that people might require 1.8-13 grams of vitamin C daily.15
Ironically, losing the ability to produce vitamin C may have actually accelerated the evolution of primates into modern human beings,
according to a new theory. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant, and losing the ability to produce it would have allowed the formation
of large number of free radicals. These excessive free radicals would have caused large numbers of DNA mutations, contributing to
the aging process and diseases. Some of these mutations would also have been inherited by offspring, creating many biological
variations - one of which eventually become H. sapiens.16
A Diet  For The Future
For much of human history, life span was not particularly long. Two thousand years ago, the average life expectancy was a mere 22
years, and infections and traumatic injury were the principal causes of death. Better hygiene and sanitation have largely accounted
for the dramatic improvement in life expectancy in the 20th century.
Now, as people live longer, they are increasingly susceptible to greater amounts of free radical damage and their principal endpoints,
cardiovascular disease and cancer.
The question: where do we and our diets go from here?
Our evolutionary diet provides important clues to the "baseline" levels and ratios of nutrients needed for health. The evidence
suggests we should be eating a lot of plant foods and modest amounts of game meat, but no grains or dairy products. With a clear
understanding of this diet, we have an opportunity to adopt to a better, more natural diet. We can also do a better job of individualizing
and optimizing our nutritional requirements.
Based on our evolutionary and paleolithic diets, it's clear that modern diets are on the wrong track - and that our diets are not
satisfying our genetic requirements. In 1939, the same year that Bogert bemoaned the rise of highly refined foods, Nobel laureate
Albert Szent-Györgyi, M.D., Ph.D., explored the importance of optimal (and not just minimal) requirements of vitamins. Years later,
Roger Williams, Ph.D., and Linus Pauling, Ph.D., would also promote the concept of optimal nutrition, based on providing ideal levels of
vitamins and other nutrients on a molecular level.
Pauling eloquently and often observed that health depended on the presence of nutritional molecules. To set a dietary course for the
future, we have to recognize how certain molecules shaped our lives over millions of years. Paleolithic diets provide provide those
clues - and give us a sound foundation to build on, perhaps to protect and prime our genes even further.
Evolution describes the mechanism of how life develops, but says nothing about whether a higher being was guiding the process.
Regardless, the diet of today is very different from, and not always as good as, the diet of the past.


Shallot, Steak Marinade
1/3 cup mince shallots
½ cup olive oil or canola oil
3 tablespoons fresh thyme
¼ teaspoon white pepper
3 tablespoons freshly squeezed lemon juice
Mix the marinade ingredients in a non-reactive pan. Score the meat, and place it in the pan and turn in the marinade. Marinate for at
least two hours at room temperature or up to 24 hours refrigerated. If refrigerated, turn the steak in the marinade occasionally.
Remove the steaks from the marinade (retain marinade) and grill to taste. Bring the remaining marinade to a boil in a non-reactive
saucepan and remove from heat. Carve the meat in thin diagonal slices across the grain (this makes for a tender cut) and arrange the
slices on a warm platter. Pour the carving juices and the marinade over the meat. Garnish with parsley sprigs or watercress.
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4 ripe tomatoes, quartered
1 small onion, coarsely chopped
1 peeled garlic clove
½ cup water
2 tablespoons lemon juice
Pepper to taste
Cayenne (optional)
1 sprig fresh parsley
4 ice cubes
1 medium cucumber, peeled and coarsely chopped
Blend all ingredients in a blender or food processor, until vegetables are small but not pureed.

Zucchini Parsley Soup
¼ cup diced onion
1 cup thinly sliced carrots
1 cup thinly sliced zucchini
2 teaspoons chopped fresh parsley
¼ teaspoon thyme
1/8 teaspoon pepper
2 cups water
In a 1 ½ quart saucepan, cook onion until translucent; add all other ingredients except water. Cover and cook over low heat, stirring
occasionally, until vegetables are tender, about 10 minutes. Add water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to medium and cook until
vegetables are soft, about 20 minutes. Remove from heat and let cool slightly. Remove ½ cup soup from pan and reserve; pour
remaining soup into blender and process at low speed until smooth. Combine pureed and reserved mixtures in saucepan and cook,
stirring constantly until hot. Makes two servings.

Spicy Cauliflower Celery Soup
1 large head of cauliflower
2-3 celery stalks
1 carrot
2 cloves garlic
1-2 onions
1-2 teaspoons ground cumin
½ teaspoon pepper
Parsley springs
¼ teaspoon sage
Chop head of cauliflower (save a handful of tiny flowerets for a raw garnish) and put in soup pot. Chop and add: celery, carrots, garlic
and onions. Add spices. Barely cover with water, bring to boil and simmer until veggies are tender. Blend the contents of the pot and
adjust seasonings to taste. Add a little hot water if the soup is too thick. Serve garnished with raw flowerets.
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Fruit Dishes and Desserts
Otie's Apple Breakfast
1 large apple (any type), chopped into bite sized pieces
1 medium carrot, grated
Handful of raisins
Mix the apple, carrot and raisins in a bowl, sprinkle cinnamon over the top.

Carrot Ambrosia Salad
1 pound shredded carrots
20 ounces fresh pineapple
8 ounces coconut milk
¾ cup flaked coconut
¾ cup raisins
2 tablespoon honey
Combine all ingredients, tossing well. Cover and chill.

Fresh Cinnamon Applesauce
6 apples
¼ cup honey
2-3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
Mix honey and lemon juice. Core and slice apples. Mix with honey and blenderize just until smooth. Sprinkle with cinnamon and serve

Banana Pear Ambrosia
1 ripe avocado
1 pear
1 banana
1 tablespoon honey
Pineapple or lemon juice
Blender all ingredients until smooth. Serve in sherbet glasses.

Baked Walnut-Cinnamon Apples
4 Apples
1 cup raisins
¼ teaspoon cinnamon
½ teaspoon vanilla
½ cup water
¼ cup walnuts  
Heat oven to 375 F. Core and piece apples with a fork in several places around the center, to prevent them from bursting. Mix raisins,
nuts, cinnamon and vanilla in a small bowl. Fill center of each apple with this mixture. Place in a glass-baking dish and pour water into
pan. Cover with foil and bake about 30 minutes or until tender.

Peach Almond Delight
3 fresh peaches
4 ounces slivered almonds
1 teaspoon vanilla
2 tablespoon diced Medjool dates
Wash the peaches and cut each one into 8 sections. Mix with the almonds and dates and drizzle with vanilla and sprinkle cinnamon
on top.

Cantaloupe Stuffed with Blackberries and Pecans
1 half cantaloupe
½ cup blackberries
¼ cup chopped pecans
1 tablespoon honey
Mint or Spearmint leaves
Cut cantaloupe in half (serrated) and scoop out seeds. Fill cavity with blackberries and pecans. Spoon honey over top. Garnish with
mint or spearmint leaves.

Raspberry Casaba Treat
½ cup fresh raspberries
½ cup fresh casaba melon chunks (bite-size)
¼ cup chopped hazelnuts
1 tablespoon honey
Combine raspberries, casaba melon and hazelnuts in a medium serving dish and ladle honey over top.

Strawberry/Blueberry Horizon
1 cup fresh strawberries
1 cup fresh blueberries
½ tangerine, sectioned
1 tablespoon fresh squeezed orange juice
1 teaspoon vanilla
Ground nutmeg
Fresh mint
Mix strawberries, blueberries, tangerine sections in a bowl. Drip with orange juice and vanilla, and sprinkle with nutmeg. Serve chilled
and garnished with mint.

Condiments, Dips, Salsas, Salad Dressings, Marinades
Omega-3 Mayonnaise
1 whole egg
1 tablespoon lemon juice
¼ teaspoon dry mustard
½ cup olive oil
½ cup flaxseed oil
Put egg, lemon juice and mustard in blender and blend for 3-5 seconds. Continue blending and slowly add oils. Blend until the
mayonnaise is thick. Scrape mayonnaise into a snap lock plastic container and refrigerate. The Mayonnaise should keep for 5-7 days.

Ray's Catsup
3 ½ pounds tomatoes (washed and sliced)
2 medium onions (sliced)
1/8 clove garlic
½ bay leaf
½ red pepper
¼ cup unsweetened fruit juice (white grape, pear, or apple)
1 teaspoon whole allspice
1 teaspoon whole cloves
1 teaspoon whole mace
1 teaspoon celery seeds
1 teaspoon black peppercorns
½ inch cinnamon stick
½ cup lemon juice
Pinch of cayenne pepper
Boil tomatoes, onion, garlic, bay leaf and red pepper until soft. Add fruit juice. Mix spices (allspice, cloves, mace, celery seed,
peppercorns and cinnamon) and put them into a small cloth spice bag. Add spice bag to mixture, boiling quickly, and stirring
frequently until it reduces to half the quantity. Take out the spice bag. Add lemon juice and cayenne pepper. Continue boiling for 10
more minutes. Bottle catsup in clean jars with ¾ inch of space above for expansion. Seal and freeze immediately. Always refrigerate
container that is currently in use.
From: Neanderthin: A Caveman's Guide to Nutrition by Ray Audette

Guacamole  ala  Sacramento
3 ripe avocados
1 teaspoon fresh squeezed lemon juice
1 teaspoon coarse ground black pepper
1 teaspoon garlic powder
1 finely diced, de-stemmed, de-seeded jalapeno pepper  
Mash avocados together with a fork or potato masher until smooth and then stir in all other ingredients until well mixed.

Fresh Cilantro Salsa
2 garlic cloves
1 large yellow onion, quartered
1 green bell pepper, quartered and seeded
3 jalapeno peppers
6 tomatoes, peeled, seeded and chopped
1 cup fresh cilantro
Freshly ground pepper to taste
Place the garlic in a food processor bowl and process until minced. Add the onion and pepper and process with on/off pulses until
they are barely chopped. Add tomatoes and cilantro and process until combined but slightly chunky. Add pepper. Refrigerate until
ready to use.

Peach Salsa
1 cup peeled and finely chopped peaches
¼ cup chopped red onions
¼ cup chopped yellow or green peppers
1 tablespoon lime juice
2 teaspoons fresh cilantro
½ teaspoon honey
Cayenne pepper to taste
In a medium bowl, stir everything together. Cover and chill for up to 6 hours.

Colorado Spinach Salad Dressing
1 tablespoon honey
1/3 cup lemon juice
Fresh ground pepper to taste
1 teaspoon minced fresh tarragon
1/3 cup olive oil
1/3 cup flaxseed oil  
Dissolve honey in lemon juice; add pepper and tarragon and stir. Pour this mixture into a cruet, add the oils and shake vigorously to

Honey Mustard Dressing
½ cup spring water
¼ cup olive oil
¼ cup flaxseed oil
1 teaspoon mustard powder
1 pinch white pepper
1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
2 tablespoons honey
Mix all ingredients together in a cruet and thoroughly shake before using.

Paprika, Basil Dressing
2 stalks celery and leaves, very finely chopped
2 small green onions and tops, very finely chopped
1 teaspoon paprika
¼ teaspoon dried basil
1/8 teaspoon marjoram or rosemary
½ cup olive oil
½ cup flaxseed oil
2/3 cup lemon juice
Put all ingredients into a tightly covered jar and shake vigorously until well blended. Allow to stand in refrigerator until flavors are

Ranch Dressing
1 cup "Omega-3 Mayonnaise" from recipe above
1 cup coconut milk
1 teaspoon dried dill
½ teaspoon garlic powder
Pepper to taste
Mix all ingredients together. It is better if refrigerated for one hour before serving but this step is not necessary. It should be noted
that this dressing tastes just like regular dressing, with no coconut taste at all. It is also great as a dip for raw veggies.

Tartar Sauce
1 cup "Omega-3 Mayonnaise" from recipe above
¼ cup finely chopped onion
1 tablespoon lemon juice
½ teaspoon dried dill
Mix ingredients together. The flavor is best after chilling for an hour before serving.

Omega-3 Russian Salad Dressing
1 cup fresh tomatoes
½ cup olive, canola or flaxseed oil
½ cup lemon juice
1 tablespoon honey
1 teaspoon paprika
1 small green onion or 1 teaspoon onion powder
1 teaspoon horseradish powder (optional)
1 garlic clove (optional)
Put everything into a blender and blend until smooth.

Omega-3 Tomato Dressing
1/3 cup tomato puree
½ cup olive oil, canola oil or flaxseed oil
1/3 cup lemon juice
1 clove garlic
1 onion, chopped
1 tablespoon honey
Put everything into a blender and blend until smooth.

Blueberry Barbeque Sauce
1 teaspoon olive oil
1 teaspoon canola oil
¼ cup minced onion
1 tablespoon minced fresh jalapeno chile, seeded
¼ cup "Ray's Catsup" (recipe from above)
1 tablespoon honey
¼ teaspoon dry mustard
Dash cayenne pepper
2 cups fresh or frozen blueberries
Fresh ground pepper
Heat the oil in a non-reactive saucepan. Add the onion and jalapeno and cook over moderate heat, stirring, until wilted, about 3
minutes. Add the catsup, honey, mustard and cayenne and bring to a simmer. Add the blueberries and simmer over low heat, stirring
until thickened, about 10 minutes. Puree the sauce in a blender or food processor until smooth. Pass through a strainer and season
with pepper. Serve at room temperature.

Tangy Oldowan Chicken Marinade
½ cup lime juice
¼ cup olive oil
3 garlic cloves, minced
1 jalapeno pepper, cut in 1/8 inch slices (do not remove seeds)
¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro
Dash white pepper
Combine all ingredients. Pour over one pound skinless/boneless chicken breast halves. Marinate at least 2 hours. Remove chicken
from marinade and either grill or broil. Brush with remaining marinade during cooking.

Tijuana 1922 Marinade
¼ cup whole allspice
3 jalapeno peppers, seeded and chopped
10 green onions, chopped
½ cup chopped onion
4 garlic cloves, chopped
4 bay leaves, crushed
1 three inch piece ginger, peeled and chopped
1/3 cup fresh thyme
1 teaspoon freshly ground nutmeg
1 teaspoon freshly ground cinnamon
1 tablespoon freshly ground black pepper
¼ cup olive oil, canola oil or flaxseed oil
¼ cup lime juice
Roast the allspice in a dry skillet until they are aromatic, about two minutes. Remove and crush them to a powder in a mortar or spice
mill. Add the powder and the remaining ingredients to a food processor and blend to make a paste or sauce. Remove and store in a
jar in the refrigerator; it will keep for a month or more.

Kona Local Marinade
1/3 cup coconut milk
2 tablespoons lime juice
1 tablespoon raw honey
2 tablespoons fresh ginger root, finely grated
Combine ingredients and marinate steak, chicken, fish or pork before barbequing. Baste with marinade during barbequing.

Mojo Grilled Shrimp Marinade
¼ teaspoon dry mustard
Juice of 1 lime or lemon
¼ cup olive, canola oil
½ teaspoon honey
Dash cayenne pepper
Mix all ingredients together. Marinate shrimp for several hours.
This page has 130 Ana tips and some amazing before and after photos to prothinspire! Here are some quick tips...
Follow the Chinese saying: "Eat until you are eight-tenths full."
Use mustard instead of mayo.
click here for condiments.
Eat more soup. The non-creamy ones are filling but low-cal.
Cut back on or cut out caloric drinks such as soda, sweet tea, lemonade, etc. People have lost weight by making just this one
change. If you have a 20-oz bottle of Coca-Cola every day, switch to Diet Coke.
You should lose 25 lb in a year.
Take your lunch to work.
Dilute juice with water.
. Have mostly veggies for lunch.
Eat at home.
. Limit alcohol to weekends.
click here to read about what alcholic drinks are best on a diet.
click here for more.